Saturday, May 23, 2020

Social Sexism Language

Sample details Pages: 34 Words: 10304 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Social Sexism Language Abstract There is no denying that communication is one of the keys to success for individuals in a rapidly changing world. Why do mere words carry too much power? First of all, language can develop ones consciousness from infancy. Children learning the language are likely to absorb the cultural assumptions, myths and prejudice underlying language use. Social inequity reflected in language, thus, can powerfully shapes childrens later behaviors and attitudes. In this way, language affects socialization of the community where it belongs. The aim of this paper is to develop human perspectives on sexism in language, its manifestations and its negative impacts on women. From theory to practice, the paper, furthermore, equips its readers with relevant guidelines to stay away from unwittingly using sexist language and apply the gender-neutral language. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Social Sexism Language | Cultural Studies Dissertations" essay for you Create order Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. Discrimination against women Sexism or gender discrimination means treating people differently on the grounds of their genders, which they were born to be. In a popular old feminist slogan, which goes You start by sinking into his arms and end up with your arms in his sink, the prevalence of sexism is beyond question. For years, men have held the dominant position of power and ruled the world while women have been considered inferior and useless. Even in our modern times, millions of women across the world are living in inequality, in injustice: their basic human rights are severely infringed due to no other reasons than their gender. Discrimination against women is manifested in numerous aspects of life such as education, work, enjoyment of benefits, freedom, power, etc. Take education as an example. Women, who make up 66% of the worlds illiterate adults, may account for 55% of college students but even after they successfully completed the same course of education or training, their equal work opportunities, and equal treatment in their career life are not guaranteed. Sex Discrimination in the Workplace According to Womens World Summit Foundation, globally, women perform 66% of the worlds work, but receive only 11% of the worlds income, and own only 1% of the worlds land. Also, a report released in August 2007 by the US Census Statistics showed that womens earnings in 2006 were 76.9% of mens,leaving the wage gap statisticallyunchanged fromlast year Unequal payment against women The manifestation of sexism can be found almost everywhere on earth, from most developed countries to developing countries and under-developed ones in Asia and Africa. In parts of the world, like China, India and Vietnam, parents may terminate the foetus or put the baby up to adoption on the basis that it is a girl. Abuses against women are social epidemics throughout the world. More often than not, men in Pakistan, Uzbekistan, South Africa, and Peru, etc. beat their wives and daughters at home at an astounding rate. In Ukraine, Nigeria, and Thailand, women are bought and sold, trafficked and forced to work as prostitutes. In the meantime, women in Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia tackle with discrimination that renders them unequal before the law. Even in the US, where freedom is believed to reach the extreme, breaking news and articles on polygamy keep showing up frequently in daily newspaper, radio and television. Recently, a huge scandal over a polygamist broke on the front page of all the papers. Warren Jeffs, head of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Texas, was convicted after he forced a 14-year-old girl to marry her cousin. That unfortunate girl is not the only case. Hundreds of other girls and women there suffer from the same ill-treatment. Members in the sect led by Jeffs believe that a man must marry at least three wives in order to ascend to heaven. Women are meanwhile taught that their path to heaven depends on being subservient to their husbands. 1.2. Gender Equality Thanks to the dawn of civilization, the vital roles of women have been recognized and gender equality has received major attention. Since the 1960s, feminism movements began and have blossomed all over the world. Peoples attitude and ways of thinking toward women have been changing positively. In many countries, girls have the opportunity to go to school and enjoy the same rights as their male classmates. The number of female employees in the workplace has risen up dramatically. A peak in social changes is the adoption of Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women by the United Nations General Assembly on December, 18th, 1979. It came into full force as an international treaty after the twentieth country ratified it on September, 3rd, 1981. In its approach, the Convention covers three dimensions of the situation of women. Civil rights and the legal status of women are dealt with in great detail. In addition, the Convention, unlike other human rights treaties, is also concerned with the dimension of human reproduction as well as with the impact of cultural factors on gender relations. The implementation of the Convention is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The Committees mandate and the administration of the treaty are defined in the Articles 17 to 30 of the Convention. The Committee is composed of 23 experts nominated by their Governments and elected by the States parties as individuals of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention. At least every four years, the States parties are expected to submit a national report to the Committee, indicating the measures they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention. During its annual session, the Committee members discuss these reports with the Government representatives and explore with them areas for further action by the specific country. The Committee also makes general recommendations to the States parties on matters concerning the elimination of discrimination against women. 1.3. Language as the reflector of society Language is not merely a means of communication; rather, it connects people to each other in social relationships and allows them to participate in a variety of activities in daily life. There is a reciprocal relationship between language and the society in which the society dominates the kind of language spoken in its community. And in return, peoples thought is strongly affected by their languages. Every little change in the thought takes languages influence to the extreme, transcending the whole society. Consequently, under the canopy of sexism world, language in general or English in particular is greatly influenced and turns out to be sexist, creating Sexism in Language. For example, in the Western countries, the manifestation of sexist language emerged on the very early days in the Bible. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day when God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. He created them male and female, and he blessed them and he named them Man in the day when they were created. (Genesis 5:1, 2) When Neil Armstrong, the legendary American astronaut, made his very first step on the moon, he uttered a memorable sentence: Thats one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. If he had landed on the moon in the mid-90s, he would definitely have said a much more politically correct sentence: Thats one small step for a person, one giant leap for humankind. which is less poetic but certainly more literally representative of the whole of the human race. In the progressive, civilized world today, women and men are to be recognized equal. In the same vein, sexist language should not be welcomed and that is the reason why neutral-gender language is preferred to the sexist one by many people. 1.4. Aims and objectives There is a long way to go until the deep-rooted concept of sexism vanishes completely though a lot of changes have come in subtle ways through our actions, our movements, our laws,. As one more step towards this end, important things like the usage of words should be taken into consideration. If children are exposed to sexist words used by their parents, relatives since their childhood, they will take it for granted that sexism is not a matter, that language is language and that we just swim with the tide. Clearly, language may shape human thought. Therefore, in this paper, my overall aim and objectives are: To raise public awareness in using language. To help English learners to improve their understanding in sexist language. To provide information that, to some extent, shows English learners to the right track of language usage so as not to unwittingly offend or hurt anyone. To describe how discrimination against women appears in spoken and written language and explain what sexist language is and what meaning lies behind it. To manifest sexism in Vietnamese roughly and sexism in English in more details. Last but not least, to provide English users with some practical tips to avoid sexist language. Chapter 2 Review Of The Related Literature The relationship between language and gender has long been of interest within sociolinguistics and related disciplines. The possibility of eliminating sexism from language originally stems from the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which states that language is not only shaped by society, but society by its language. Since the early 1900s, Edward Sapir first identified a new concept, which is language determinism. In his perspectives, language defines the way a person behaves and thinks. He believed that language and the thoughts that we have are somehow interwoven, and that all people are equally being affected by the confines of their language. Later, Benjamin Whorf, Sapirs student, picked up on the idea of linguistic determinism and really made it his own. Whorf coined the so-called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which is more properly referred to as the Whorf hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, language is believed to be more than a way of voicing ideas, but the element which shapes those ideas. One cannot think outside the confines of their language. Whorf put his whole trust in linguistic determinism; that what one thinks is fully determined by its language. He also supported linguistic relativity, which means that the differences in language reflect the different views of different people. For example, Whorf conducted a study on the Hopi language. He did research on a Hopi speaker who lived in New York City near the place he lived. He concluded that Hopi speakers do not include tense in their sentences, and therefore must have a different sense of time than other groups of people. On a parting note, the strong form of the hypothesis is not now widely believed. After all, speakers of one language can explain and understand the conceptual systems of another language. And grammatical categories do not thoroughly explain cultural systems. Indo-European languages put gender into a grammatical category, and their speakers may be sexist but speakers of Turkish or Chinese, languages without grammatical gender, are not notably less sexist. A weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, that language influences without determining our categories of thought still seems justifiable, and is even backed up by some psychological experiments like the finding of Kay Kempton which depicts, in distinguishing colour triads, a pair distinguished by colour names can seem more distinct than a pair with the same name which are actually more divergent optically. As a field, prompted by the blossoming Western Womens Movement, language and gender really took off in the 1970s with particular interest from feminist researchers, in the potential for male dominance of mixed-gender talk such as men interrupting women more often than the reverse case or in the clarification of distinction between female and male speaking styles and in sexism, or sexist bias, in language. The year 1975 can be regarded as a milestone in the study of language and gender in the West. In that year three important books were published. They are Robin Lakoffs work Language and Womens Place, Thorne and Henleys co-edited collection named Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance, and Keys book about Male /Female Language. With a closer look at Lakoffs book, he focuses especially on female use of woman talk in society and the problems women must overcome to be seen as effective, strong thinkers and speakers. The author uses classroom observations and examples to convey the idea that children are taught to speak politely and to accept peoples ideas. Ridicule from older boys causes boys around the age of five to stop using woman talk and adopt a masculine language. Girls sustain their old language and are discouraged from using masculine language. As for adults, a problem arises when women has to handle both business and personal relationships. They use neutral language for business but mostly feminine language when talking to friends. If they refuse to talk like ladies, they are ridiculed for being masculine, but they are also ridiculed when they use feminine language because they are seen as unable to speak forcefully. Basically, women are damned if they do and damned if they dont. Men, from childhood on, have taken control over the society and speech by using strong expressions while women have had to adapt their language to variations, no matter business or personal. For instance, a woman may say an idea is terrific in a board meeting, but when she is talking to her female friend she may utter that the idea is divine. The adjectives used vary with a womans environment. Because women have to make adjustments in their speech, Lakoff observes, most women never really master either language or feel comfortable using both. Therefore, the overall effect of womans talk is to engage a womans personal identity and her ideas, erasing the chance to take power. Thanks to observations, the author notes that women outnumbered men in utilizing more tag questions (questions that dont commit the speaker to an idea either way) because they want reassurance that their statement is correct. Lakoff concludes that womens speech is devised by society and taught to girls through socialization to prevent the expression of ideas that may increase womens status. A writer and administrator at Arizona State University, Nelsin P.A (1977) carried out a study of the dictionary prescribing sexism in English. Using richly detailed historical evidence, she disclosed how often English expresses sexist assumptions among males and females. In her study, she read a desk dictionary and jotted down note cards on every entry that seemed to refer to male and female. Her collection of note cards brought to her mind the association of English with the society. As for her, Language and society are intertwined as a chicken and an egg. The values and beliefs of a culture can be revealed through its language. A language may change fast as new words can be easily introduced but it also takes a whale of time for old words and usages to disappear. Based on Nilsens note cards, she found out three main points about the comparison between men and women: Women are sexy and Men are successful, Women are passive and Men are active and Women are connected with Negative Connotations; Men with Positive Connotations. More recently, Marlis Hellinger and Madumod Bussman (2002) (as cited in Ansary and Babaii 2005), two German linguists published their work Gender across Languages Linguistic representation of women and men. They have managed a long time of intensive preparation to create an outstanding project gathering linguists to present research on gender representation across 30 countries, namely China, Norway, Spain, Finland, Holland, Vietnam, etc. The project provides an incredible huge amount of new insights into the topic of linguistic representation of gender in different languages. Various pieces of linguistic research from different countries have been collected in three volumes. Each of the three volumes is introduced by an identical article of the editors giving some general information about the project, the topics to be discussed for the different languages in the volumes and the terminology used. Take Vietnamese research as an example. Ms. Hoa Pham manages to show in her very informative article in Vietnamese the role, social status and traditional values play for person reference forms. She focuses in her study on terms women and men use in various relationships in urban settings among young and/or educated people. Her study therefore emphasizes the role concrete communicational situations play in person reference. Vietnamese as a classifier language expresses gender mainly by special morphemes used as modifiers. The role gender specific reference takes and the way it is expressed is dependent on the communicational context including the relative status and age of the people addressed, speaking and referred to. Nevertheless, social changes play an important role here as well. Terms of address, self-reference and reference have changed in the last few decades with the change of womens roles in society. Chapter 3 Sexist Language 3.1 Background Definition Research on sex roles conducted by Swim, Mallett and Stangor (2004) indicates that sexism comes out in many forms, which are blatant, covert and subtle sexism. Both blatant sexism and covert sexism are defined as intended but differ from each other in the visibility. Blatant sexism which means unjust and discriminatory treatment of women relative to men is showed up obviously while covert sexism inclines to invisible ill-treatment of women. Compared to those two kinds, subtle sexism represents unfair treatment to women, which is hardly recognized for it is perceived as normative and conventional. Similar to covert sexism, subtle sexism is hidden away but it is not unintentionally harmful. In fact, subtle sexism is of particular interest of researchers due to its wide prevalence and adverse impacts on its victims. Sexist language is part and parcel of subtle sexism. It is the language which devalues members of one sex, almost invariably women, and thus foster gender inequality. In other words, sexist language consists of speeches and utterances that strengthens, perpetuates gender stereotypes and status differences between women and men. In a human life chart, sexist language may appear in the very first lines. Kids learn it from their parents, siblings, neighbors and as time passes by, it mutates and evolves into a linguistic habit. People may use sexist language for a handful of reasons. It may be owing to the tradition, the norm ingrained in current written and spoken language and hard to change. Some people lack the knowledge about what makes up sexist language. Some do not believe that such language is sexist. Others may attempt to uphold the hierarchism in their societies. 3.2 Sexism in English Is English sexist? There is nothing denying it. English, one of the worlds most spoken languages indeed proves to be sexist through its historical and current use. It has been a norm in the past to refer to individuals in general terms as being male as in the sentence: When an average British goes out in the rain, he takes an umbrella with him. To the ear of most of English speakers, the use of she and her in that context would sound a little strange. In deed, the word woman in English is defined in terms of man. From the Old English, the word man means person while woman clings to the view of wife of a person. In his translation of the Book of Genesis, which explained Eva was formed by a spare rib of Adam and Adam made his declaration: This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. And the fact remains till today that woman derives from man as Winston Churchill put it: In grammar, as in love, the male embraces the female when he was asked by a feminist on this point. Ambiguities may occur when using only one word man for both sexes like in the following examples: Eg 1: Like other animals, man nourishes his baby with milk. Hearing such sentence could make people roll on the floor laugh because it sounds contradictory to the common sense. Eg 2: The Company only employs experienced men with good English command. The sentence could make listeners confused since they do not know what the exact sex that the Company wants to employ. Can experienced women with good English command or with much better qualities get a job in the Company? 3.3 Sexism in Vietnamese Under a thousands-of-years feudal regime, especially the prolonged domination of China, patriarchal ideology was adopted, nurtured and practiced by the whole Vietnamese society. Such ideology dominated the Vietnamese culture for quite a long time, breeding malicious disregard and contempt of women. Though Vietnam has endeavored to develop a country of gender equality, sexism still exists in many parts of the country, especially in rural areas. This is, to some extent, reflected through the societys conceptions of women in general and the sexist language people used when it comes to women in particular. Nht nam vit hu, thp n vit v The above sentence can be read literally One boy child, write yes, ten girl children, write no. Right at birth, a gender discrimination barrier was set up between a male and a female. The saying affirms the dominant role of the male the family clan and yet if the baby turns out to be a daughter, her existence would mean nothing: her name will not be registered in the family tree. This perspective of the Vietnamese older generations, unfortunately lingers on. In reality, it is common in Vietnam that a poor couple may already have a dozen of daughters but still wish for more until they have a son who will be considered the only heir to the familys property and tradition. The concept of Tam tng adopted from Confucius philosophy has been spread out widely from generation to generation in Vietnamese families. Ti gia tng ph, xut gi tng phu, phu t tng t means a girl, since her birth, is a belonging of her father; after she gets married, she becomes a property of her husband and even when her husband passes away, she belongs to their son. In all the stages of her life, the woman has never lived, even for a minute, as an independent human being but an item passed over from one man to another. She cannot make a decision for her own life. Vietnamese literature contains a staggering amount of sexist proverbs and folk- songs where men are deemed to be superior to women. Phn gi c hai bn sng, Bn c th chu, bn trong th nh . The two sentences in the folk-song describe the unpredictable fate of women. They have to accept and unconditionally obey the decision made by her parents whether it is right or wrong one. If , for example, a woman was fortunate enough to marry a good man, she could live a happy life. Otherwise, she would have to endure all the hardships, misery or even sufferings for the rest of her life. The unpredictability of a womans life in the past can be found in many other folk-songs and old poems such as: Thn em nh ht ma xa Ht ri xung ging ht vo vn hoa. Thn em trng phn em trn Bay ni ba chm vi nc non Rn nt mc u tay k nn.. Not only Vietnamese women lost their freedom, did they also suffer from the disrespect for their intelligence and education. n ng nng ni ging khi. n b su sc nh ci ng tru. Literally translated, a man may act hastily but his thought is likened to a deep well whereas a woman may think deeply but her thought is just as narrow as the platter of betel. These two sentences implied a gross underestimate of womens mind in comparison with men. In the old days, women had almost no access to education and very few opportunities to communicate with the outside world. For this reason, women at that time were not as knowledgeable as men who were granted a preference to pursue their study. Women can also mean misfortune or bad luck, which is clearly expressed in the following tip-of-the-tongue saying: Ra ng gp gi. This expression says when you go out in the morning, if the first person you meet is a female, you are deemed to fail to gain what you planned to do or you may face with some trouble or even with an accident. A lot of Vietnamese, especially old and rural people, remain sexist in their language usage. They now often say, for example, n b th lm c g!, which covers the idea that women are worthless and women are never able to do anything serious or important. The word gi which used to refer to the prime time of a female now comes to be used in many contexts as a derogatory term, for example: gi y (thats a whore.), gi gi y (thats a call girl), gi ga (thats a stuff of widow), gi (thats a promiscuous stuff), etc. Those judgements, nevertheless, no longer holds water in the 21st century Vietnam society, in which women enjoy the same right to go to school and interact socially with others. It is a society where men and women are equal in all aspects: a great number of women are now members of Parliament, senior officials in the government, leaders in a number of industries, honoured professors and doctors. Chapter 4 Sexist English Its Manifestations Language can be likened to a social phenomenon, closely related to social attitudes. What happens in our daily life is partly reflected in our language. The existence of sexist language depicts in the pervasion of sexism in our day-by-day conversations, in our messages, and in our thoughts. In the past, women were supposed to stay at home, remaining powerless and generally subordinates to men whereas men were the focus, the centre of the family and even the whole society. Women have been looked down on as the weaker sex and should be dependent on men. Language simply reflects social facts. 4.1. Ways of addressing Addressing practices for men and women are asymmetric. Inequality is implied when different endearments Mrs. and Miss are used for women in different situations while men are associated with only one endearment Mr. Choosing a title for women depends on their marital status. If a woman is still single, she will be called Miss but after she gets married (or was married as with widow), the title will be changed into Mrs. Thereby, when noticing how a woman is addressed, people can tell that woman has made a wedding vow or not. Using title Mr. before the name of a person, on the other hand, merely shows that the person is a male adult. The term Mr., used for both single and married men, has perfectly masked the marital status of a man. This linguistic distinction implies that it is more important for woman than man to show whether one is married. However, in a modern and civilized society, a womans avowed commitment to another human being which characterizes a marriage is a personal and private matter that bears no relevance in the public sphere. Hence, women should be able to enjoy the same status with the male counterparts who do not need to define themselves in terms of marriage. 4.2. Terms ending in man refer to functions performed by both sexes In English, there is a huge amount of male-oriented words (those contain the element man) that can in fact apply to both sexes. In deed, when referring to students newly joined a university, the word freshmen is used as if all new students were male. For example:chairmancongressmancouncilman newsmanforemanfreshman policemansalesmanmailman Occupational nouns and job titles ending in -man obscure the presence of women in such professions and positions. For a long period of time, women are deserted from power and the right to voice their opinion in such fields as politics. Hence, it is common sense to view jobs like congressman as for male only, discounting the fact that the number of women making contribution to the political arena is skyrocketing. 4.3. Sex-linked modifiers While male-oriented words are used for both sexes, some other words, especially name of some professions which can be applied for both sexes, are habitually associated with male only. In order to refer to female of those professions, we have to add a modifier such as woman, lady or girl before each name of profession albeit those names of common gender. Common Gender Female DoctorWoman doctor ProfessorWoman professor EngineerWoman engineer LawyerLady lawyer ReporterGirl reporter The addition of modifier is a piece of evidence for discrimination against women as it reflects the perspective that women are appendages of men. 4.4. Bound morpheme used for a feminine form of a noun Gender discrimination in language also shows in the fact that a feminine noun of some words can only be obtained by adding a bound morpheme. For example: MALEFEMALEMALEFEMALE ManWomanManagerManageress PrincePrincessGodGoddess AuthorAuthoressMayorMayoress CountCountessShepherdShepherdess HostHostessStewardStewardess PoetPoetessUsherUsherette HeirHeiressSailorSailorette HeroHeroineConductorConductette 4.5. Words that point to Marriage issue In a wedding ceremony, after the couple exchange their rings, the priest will utter his last words: I pronounce you man and wife to officially recognise the connection between two human beings. In the priests sentence, there is a lack of parallelism in man and wife. After marriage, the man remains the status of a man while the woman shifts her status into the wife of a man. In a traditional Christian wedding, the official asked Who gives the bride away. And the father would reply I do or Her mother and I do but there in the question lied an inherent problem. The idea that the bride is something to be handed over from one man to another conjures up images of the day when wife and children of a man were considered his properties and establishes the woman in the subservient role of wife. More interestingly, there is much linguistic evidence depicting that weddings are more important to women than to men. A woman cherishes the wedding and is considered a bride for a whole year, but a man is referred to as a groom only on the wedding day. The word bride appears in bridal attendant, bridal gown, bridesmaid, bridal shower, and even bridegroom. The word groom comes from the Middle English word grom, meaning man and in the sense is seldom used outside of the wedding. With most pairs of male/female words, people habitually put the masculine word first, Mr. and Mrs., his and hers, boys and girls, men and women, kingsand queens, brothers and sisters, guys and dolls, and host and hostess, but it is the bride and groom who are talked about, not the groom and bride. The importance of marriage to a woman is also shown by the fact that when amarriage ends in death, the woman gets the title of widow. A man gets the derivedtitle of widower, which is not used in other phrases or contexts, but widow is seenin widowhood, widows peak, and widows walk. A widow in a card game is an extra hand of cards while in type setting it is an extra line of type. Another way in which male are treated differently from female is the contrast between bachelor and spinster. A bachelor is used to describe a man who is single and who may or may not be divorced. Divorcee refers to single women who were previously married while there is no such word for single women who have never been married. The term spinster is highly pejorative since it tells about a woman who has been left unmarried, to make it clear, who has been left unmarried in this case is a lesser being than a male who chooses not to be married. A bachelor does not bring to mind the image of failure, relegation and rejection as the word spinster does. Does anyone look for a spinster? Mostly not. 4.6. Less favourable meaning in a pair of words derived from same root It is discriminatory when a pair of words may have the same denotation but differ in connotation and in most of the cases, the female word has less favourable meaning than the male one. Take the pair master and mistress as an example. The surface meaning of master is the host while mistress means the hostess. The word mistress, however, must possess another underlying meaning in the sentence That young guy is fed up with his wife and usually goes out for a mistress. Clearly, mistress in this context no longer contains the meaning of a hostess but a partner for adultery. Similarly, female meaning of the pair governor and governess carries a negative connotation. Governor means the person who governs a state or a province whereas Governess simply refers to a nurse maid. Another word of this type is professional. When someone says That man is a professional, the listener will think of a professional boxer or football player. By contrast, when saying Shes a professional, the speaker wants to imply that the woman is a sex worker. Same situation occurs to the word tramp. It is another slang used to denote a prostitute. But when the word tramp goes with a man, it definitely does not refer to a sex worker but a homeless person, who always has to move from one place to another and stays jobless most of the time. The case is no different to the phrase The woman in the street, in which the woman are supposed to work as a prostitute. Meanwhile the phrase The man in the street has no other meaning than an ordinary man. Wizard and witch contrast almost as much. The masculine wizard implies skill and wisdom combined with magic, while the feminine witch implies evil intentions combined with magic. In the same vein, the word shrew taken from the name of a small but especially vicious animal is defined in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary as an ill-tempered scolding woman, but the word shrewd taken from the same root is defined as marked by clever, discerning awareness and is illustrated with the phrase a shrewd businessman. It is worth noticing that in his writing, Liu (2001) affirmed that the sexually promiscuous words used for female are far more popular than for male. In North American, the English sexually oriented words for women reach 220 while the number of such type of words for men remains at 20. Schoolchildren in London extend their huge vocabulary on the offensive terms against women (which are often related to sexual behaviour) outstrips that against men. 4.7. Whats in a name? The name that people give to their children show their hopes and dreams they cherish for them. This explains why perusing the differences between male and female names of a culture can somehow unfold the cumulative expectations of that culture. Based on Nilsens proposition, in Western world, girl names normatively stick with small, lovely, precious items like Ruby, Jewel, Pearl. Esther and Stella mean star while Ada means ornament and Vanessa means butterfly. Names with meanings related to strength and power, on the other hand, are more likely to be applied to boys. e.g., Neil means champion, Martin is from Mars, the God of War, Raymond means wise protection, Harold means chief of the army, Ira means vigilant, Rex means king, and Richard means strong king. A couple of generations ago, Beverly, Francis, Hazel, Marion, and Shirley were common boys names.As these names were given to more and more girls only, parents feel odd when using them for their sons these days, and some elderly men who have been given these names long time ago prefer to go by their initials or by such abbreviated forms as Haze or Shirl. 4.8. Singular Masculine Pronouns From the very first moment of ones life, the sex of newly born baby is hidden behind the pronoun he. In the hospital instructions, new parents are reminded: When bathing baby, never leave him unattended. Plainly, in theory, he refers to members of either sex. In the shadow of the dominant masculine pronouns like he, women are often linguistically invisible. The common use of he is believed to be resulted from the male-centered world view and male cultural dominance since the 16th and 17th centuries. During that period, the first grammars of modern English were written. The male authors of these grammar books wrote mainly for male readers as very few women were literate. However, grammar of that period contained no indication that masculine pronouns could refer to both sexes. Only when some grammarian tried to shift the long-established tradition of using they as a singular pronoun, did he start to be used as a generic pronoun. In 1850 an Act of Parliament gave official sanction to the recently invented concept of the generic he. In the language used in acts of Parliament, the new law regulated, words importing the masculine gender shall be deemed and taken to include females. Since then, language used in similar contracts and other legal documents helped reinforce the exercise of the generic use of he. However, most people in English speaking countries considered he as men only. Consequently, sentences like You should take your daughter to see a dentist, he can help her relief the toothache imply that all dentists are men. To push the point further, think of this sentence: The average American needs the small routines of getting ready for work. As he shaves or blow-dries his hair or pulls on his panty hose, he is easing himself by small stages into the demands of the day. The first image comes to mind when hearing this sentence is a weird man putting on female clothes, not an American woman. The use of he confuses many people, who generally do not consider it a generic pronoun but a masculine pronoun. In fact, the male pronouns he, him, his are used automatically as a representative for all humanity like in the sentence: Every good citizen should love his country more than himself; he should be ready to die for it if the need arises. Is there any country on earth which consists of men only and without any woman? It is impossible. This means that using the generic he is problematic because it often leads the users to omit the appearance of female elements. 4.9. Sexism in proverbs, idioms quotes According to wikipedia, a proverb is also called a byword, a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses the truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. Although proverbs are said to be pearls of wisdom of a nation, some of them are not true wisdom, but misleading notions which uphold prejudice against women. In an English proverb, He who follows his wifes advice will never see the face of God, we can clearly feel the wicked underlines by which men show their prejudice towards women. But this is not the end. We have sayings even worse, like: A neck without a head, buttocks without a hole and a girl without shame are not worth admiring or marrying. A woman has even cheated the devil. A woman is like a lemon; you squeeze her and throw her away. Seven women in their right senses are surpassed by a mad man. Women have long hair and short sense. A womans tongue cracks bones. Some proverbs are built based on the misunderstanding about women like myth that women are much more talkative than men in the following examples: A womans tongue wags like a lambs tail. Many women, many words; many geese, many turds. Words are women, deeds are men. Three women and a goose make a market. Furthermore, sexism can also be found in idioms. . Good food! Delicious women! was once quoted as an example by the linguist Nilsen (1977) to explain the feminine role in the American culture and their image in peoples mind. He points out that it is common to compare the female with delicious food in English. Obviously womens role is not appreciated as much as mens. Some other examples are: When an ass climbs a ladder, we may find wisdom in women. A man is successful, a woman is sexy. A man of straw is worth of a woman of gold. Shakespeare once said, Frailty, thy name is women. English satirist Swift once pointed out that the saying a married woman has nothing of her own but her wedding-ring and her hair-lace reflected the low status of women. Words uttered by renowned respectable philosophers carry numerous meaning and extend overwhelming influence on the rest of the world. The female is a female by virtue of a certain lack of qualities. (Aristotle) Women should remain at home, sit still, keep house and bear and bring up children. (Martin Luther, 1483-1546) The souls of women are so small that some believe theyve none at all. (Samuel Butler, 1612-80) What a misfortune to be a woman. (Soren Kierkegaard, 1813-55) Chapter 5 Guidelines To The Use of Non Sexist Language Our Language and Society reflect each other so it is important for us as communicators to recognize, respect and adapt to changes in the meaning and acceptability of words. Concern about sexist language is part of increased awareness that the meaning of some words have been transcending in response to the changing roles of men and women in todays world. If one writes with non-sexist language, one will represent the fairness of gender in many words. Gender-fair language minimizes unnecessary concern about gender in the subject matter, allowing the readers to focus on what people do rather than on which sex they happen to be. For example, the practice of using he and man as generic terms poses a common problem. Rather than presenting a general picture of reality, he and man used generically can mislead the audience. Research by Wendy Martyna has shown that the average readers tendency is to imagine a male when reading he or man, even if the rest of the passage is gender-neutral. Therefore, no one can be sure that their readers will see the woman on the job if they refer to every technician as he, or that the readers will see the woman in the history of man. 5.1. Titles and Naming Practices The title Ms. was introduced so as to not disclose the martial status of a woman and clear out qualms for people when having to guess between Miss and Mrs, which should be used to address a strange woman. Ms. should be used for a woman whose title preference is unknown. It should be followed by the womans own name, or if she prefers, her spouses name. Any given names or initials used in connection with the title Ms. should be invariably the womans and not those of her spouse. The title Ms. does not change whether singular or plural. The pronunciation of Ms may vary but Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionaryrecommends /mz/. However, it is worth noting that when a woman spell out her own preferred title (whether Ms., Mrs. or Miss), her decision should be respected. Additionally, many women, these days, have gained professional and academic titles previously associated mainly with men. It is therefore important not to assume that all holders of titles such as Dr., Professorand Captain are men and therefore address them as Sir or refer to them as he or him. When it comes to letters, notes, reports and the like, the writers frequently know very little about the contact person or people. Without any idea about the sex of those people, it is hard to choose the correct title to address them. In such cases, the use of the salutation like Dear Sir or Dear Sirs is no longer acceptable. The following are some suggested ways of addressing: Dear Sir/Madam; Dear Sir or Madam; Dear Madam/Sir; Dear Madam or Sir Dear Principal; Dear Householder Dear Officer; Dear Customer Dear Colleague; Dear Subscriber Dear Gentlemen and Ladies; Dear Ladies and Gentlemen Dear Mackenzie Pty Ltd (in case of a company); Dear People (informal) Dear Mr. Benetti; Dear R. Benetti (sex unknown); Dear Mr./Ms. Benetti Dear Mrs. Braun; Dear Ms. Braun (if title preference unknown) It is also acceptable to address reports and references to To whom it may concern if the recipient is unknown to the writer. The use of the persons first name and surname only in salutations, e.g. Dear Pat Katspouski, has become popular in cases where the persons title (and/or sex) is unknown. Writers when replying to correspondence signed jointly by a man and a woman, should bear in mind that they need to acknowledge both the man and the woman in the salutation in the same order and form in which their names appear in the correspondence. 5.2. Gender-neutral Pronouns Beware of the problems and confusion that the masculine pronouns he, him, his may cause, it is recommended to not use those pronouns as for generic use and shift to other alternatives. The first alternative is to use they as a singular in informal communication. Most people, when writing and speaking informally, rely on singular they as a matter of course: If you love someone, set them free (Sting) Its enough to drive anyone out of their senses (George Bernard Shaw). I shouldnt like to punish anyone, even if theyd done me wrong (George Eliot). Some people are annoyed by the incorrect grammar that this solution necessitates, but this construction is used more and more frequently. Secondly, instead of using he alone, it is possible to create an option he or she to make a gender-neutral sentence. Despite the charge of clumsiness, double-pronoun constructions have made a comeback: To be black in this country is simply too pervasive an experience for any writer to omit from her or his work, (Samuel R. Delany). Overuse of this solution can be awkward, however. On the flip side, replacing every he with he or she attracts even more attention to gender and defeats authors purpose. Pluralizing can be another safe way to be considered. A writer can often switch a statement from singular form to plural form and thereby, change the whole writing into gender-neutral plural pronouns. For instance, instead of As he advances in his program, the medical student has increasing opportunities for clinical work, the writer may try As they advance in their program, medical students have increasing opportunities for clinical work. A small trick that can be applied is eliminating pronouns. That means the communicators should avoid having to use pronouns. If the sentence a first grader can feed and dress himself sounds sexist, why does the speaker remake it as a first grader can eat and get dressed without assistance.? The audience still gets the message of the speaker across while the corrected sentence prevents them from hastily jumping into conclusion that the first graders are all men. Moreover, try to avoid conditional structures, usually introduced by if or when, which normally requires for the use of pronouns. Last but not least, passive voice can be useful in case of removing gender-inclusive pronouns. For instance, in stead of If a students wishes to avoid sex bias in his writing, he should examine these alternatives, the writer may recast it by using passive voice These alternatives should be examined by any students who wish to avoid sex bias in writing. 5.3. Alternative for man By using man as representative for a group which include women, the writer misrepresents the species as male. The best solution to this problem is to replace man with a variety of non-sexist words like human, person, mortal and their variations such as humankind, human beings, humanity, human race and people. For example: From the original sentence: The effect of PCBs has been studied extensively in rats and man. Into a gender-neutral utterance: The effect of PCBs has been studied extensively in rats and humans. It is also recommendable to use a more descriptive or inclusive words like worker in replacement for work-men, adult-sized or sizeable for man-sized. For example: From the original sentence: The governor signed the workmens compensation bill. Into a gender-neutral one: The governor signed the workers compensation bill. The use of man should also be avoided in idioms and phrases when the author or speaker clearly intends the expression to include both women and men. Expressions such as the best man for the job or the man on the land not only make womens presence and achievements in the workforce invisible but can also lead to discrimination. Alternatives for some common expressions are suggested below: The man in the street: the average citizen, the average person, an ordinary person, ordinary people; The best man for the job: the best candidate or applicant, person for the job, the best man or woman for the job; Man to man: person to person. Man of the year: citizen of the year or employee of the year. In gender-specific contexts, expressions such as man to man, woman to woman, one-woman show and one-man show are appropriate. 5.4. Occupational nouns and Job titles Many job titles trivialize women or diminish their stature by using feminine suffixes such as -ess, -ette, -trix, or -enne, making unnecessary reference to the persons sex. Those suffixes suggest triviality, unimportance, or inferiority of women occupying such a position. Thus, the best way to assure gender equality is to eliminate those suffixes and use the general titles that can be applied for both sexes. For example: Current Usage Alternatives ActressActor Aviatrix Aviator Comedienne Comedian Executrixes Executors Heroines Heroes Hostesses Hosts Proprietress Proprietor Suffragette Suffragist Similarly, the use of sex-linked modifiers like lady or girl sounds gratuitous. Occupational words or job titles with sex-linked modifiers suggest that the norm for some occupations is for a particular sex. For women should be shown as participating equally with men, generic terms, such as doctor, lawyer and nurse should be assumed to apply equally to a man and a woman. For example: Current Usage Alternatives Lady Doctor Doctor Woman writer Writer Female lawyer Lawyer Male nurse Nurse 5.5. Stereotyped images describing men and women If women and men have similar characters, parallel language should be used to describe them. Avoid stereotyped generalizations about mens and womens characters and patterns of behaviour. For instance, if a man or a woman each has a determined and strong attitude, do not describe him as forceful and her as pushy. Portray and describe both women and men in a variety of roles and occupations. Take care in the description of people whose main or sole occupation consists of doing unpaid work in the home. They should not be described as a woman/man who does not work. Their work should not be depicted as unimportant or worthless. Terms such as working mother and working wife should be used with care because they may imply that non-wage-earning women do not work. Expressions such as the weaker sex, the fair sex, he acted like an old woman and old wives tales should be avoided as they are belittling and insulting to women. Sometimes it is implied that women are naturally less competent than men. When describing a couple (man and woman), treat both partners as equals. If mentioning women and men together, do not always list the man first but try to alternate the order in which women and men are described. Chapter 6 Conclusion Sexism in language is a social phenomenon that happens around the world. Not only in English and Vietnamese, but in many other languages, women are the victims of evil-intentioned jokes or proverbs. Afghan jokes and folklore are blatantly sexist, such as this proverb: If you see an old man, sit down and take a lesson; if you see an old woman, throw a stone. Confucius, one of the most influential figures in China in particular and Eastern world in general perpetuated the patriarchal society with his sexist statements like: A hundred women are not worth a single testicle. Language is like an X-ray in providing visible evidence of invisible thoughts. Sexism has existed in peoples mind for decades. It is impossible to make people transform their mindset over one day or one night. It requires numerous and unceasing efforts of the whole society. Since language is the reflector of human beings thoughts, to eliminate sexism in language, the most crucial work which needs to done first and foremost is to eliminate the concept of prejudice in human thoughts. As Maggio R. (1989) (as cited in Liu, 2001) puts it: It is also necessary to acknowledge that there can be no solution to the problem of sexism in society on the level of language alone. Using the word secretary inclusively, for example, does not change the fact that only 1.6% of American secretaries are men. Using director instead of directress does not mean a woman will necessarily enjoy the same opportunities today a man might. As stated in the beginning of this paper, one of my aims is to raise the awareness of people or in other words, to avoid errors may unconsciously have when using sexist language. The best thing about people being interested in and discussingsexist language is that, as they make conscious decisions about what pronouns theywill use, what jokes they will tell or laugh at, how they will write their names, or how they will begin their letters, they are forced to think about the underlying issue of sexism. The mandate is dont succumb to social old bad habits and be more intelligent and more progressive in promoting change. References Adams, S. (1997, Winter). Gender and God. Retrieved April, 28 2008 from https://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/articles/gendergod.html Agha, A. (2007). Language and Social Relations. Cambridge University Press. Ansary, H and Babaii, E. (2005). Subliminal Sexism in ESL/EFL textbooks. Retrieved May, 8, 2008, from https://www.asian-efl-journal.com/march03.sub1.php Chetty, A. (2005, November). Sexism prescribed by Language. Gender Links Opinion and Commentary Service. Retrieved April, 28, 2008, from https://www.a-z-dictionaries.com/blog/website-reviews/star-sexism-prescribed-by-language_34 Convention on Elimination of all Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). (2007). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ Eckert, P. and McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and Gender. Cambridge University Press. Facts about Violence against Women (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2008 from https://www.dosomething.org/node/38318 Gender Fair. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2008, from Open University University of the Philippins website https://www.upou.org/gender/gender_fair.htm Guidelines on the Use of Gender-free Language. (.n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2008, from Queen University website https://www.qub.ac.uk/eou/policiesprocedures/genderfreelang.html Jacobson, C. (n.d.) Some notes on Gender-neutral Language. Retrieved May 15, 2008 from https://www.english.upenn.edu/~cjacobso/gender.html Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and Womans Place. New York: Harper Row. Liu, X. (2004). Sexism in Language. Retrieved April 28, 2008, from https://www.ewritermagazine.com/December%202005/Sexism.htm Martyna W. (1980) Beyond the He/Man Approach: The Case for Nonsexist Language, Signs, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 482-493 The University of Chicago Press. Marlowe, M. (2005, January). The Gender-Neutral Language Controversy. Retrieved from May 15, 2008 from https://www.bible-researcher.com/inclusive.html Mills, S. (2003, January). Third Wave Feminist Linguitics and The Analysis of Sexism. Discourse Analysis Online. Retrieved May, 15, 2008 from School of Cultural Studies, Sheffield Hallam University website https://www.shu.ac.uk/schools/cs/teaching/slm/index.html Nilsen, A. (1977). Sexism in Language. Retrieved April, 28, 2008 from https://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/articles/sexinEnglish.html Proverbs (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2008 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proverb Redfern, J. (n.d.). Gender Fair Language. Retrieved May 15, 2008 from https://www.rpi.edu/web/writingcenter/genderfair.html Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. (n.d.). Retrieved April, 28, 2008 from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis Sexism (n.d.) Retrieved May 8, 2008, from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexism Swim, J., Mallett, R., and Stangor, C. (2004, August). Understanding suble sexism: detection and use of sexist language. Sex Roles A Journal of Research. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from www.springerlink.com/index/V6204116H3K45494.pdf Texan, S. (n.d.). Sexism, Language and Society. Retrieved April, 28, 2008, from https://www.myleftwing.com/showDiary.do?diaryId=1424 The Creation of Meaning through Language. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2008 from https://theorem.ca/~mvcorks/meaning_language.html US Sect leader made girl marry. (2007, September). Retrieved April, 15, 2008 from https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6994194.stm Wallechinsky, D., and Wallace, I. (1981) About sexism in language, a look at the power of words in our ideas of feminism and women, development in history. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from https://www.trivia-library.com/a/feminism-ideas-and-sexism-in-language-part-3.htm Warren, V. (n.d.). Guidelines for Non-sexist use of Language in APA. Retrieved May 15, 2008 from https://www.apa.udel.edu/apa/publications/texts/nonsexist.html What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. (n.d.). The Ultimate Learn and Resource Centre. Retrieved April, 28, 2008 from https://stason.org/TULARC/languages/linguistics/29-What-is-the-Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis.html Welford, J.; Green, S., Smothers, C. (n.d.). Sexism in the English Language. Retrieved April 28, 2008 from https://www.helium.com/items/762879-english-language-others-indeed

Monday, May 18, 2020

Spartan Oligarchy - 1099 Words

Superior Spartan Oligarchy Superiority is defined as being of higher grade or quality. And while the Athenian democracy has been able to become somewhat of a staple in modern society, in its time, it was the Spartan’s oligarchic system that allowed them to create such a strong society. It was a society that thrived on its strong political system based around a strong military. It is undeniable that in the time in which they both existed, the Spartan Oligarchy was superior to the Athenian Democracy. The evidence is clear through the system of checks and balances and the Spartan military, as well as the faults of the Athenian democratic, proving that the Spartan oligarchy was superior to Athenian democracy. â€Å"[In government] the†¦show more content†¦Although Athenian democracy allowed for the citizens of Athens to select their own political bodies, however this may not have always been such a good idea. In the Athenian academic system the learning was centered mainly on the languages and writing.(Ancient Greece) There was not very much access to the political knowledge of the world at that time. Since there was a much smaller pool of knowledge at their disposal it did not always make sense to have people who were quite uneducated in the manor of formal government, to be selecting people to rule their city. While it did allow for all people to have a say, the rulers in Sparta were appointed at an elder age allowing them to use their previous knowledge to make decisions. While the Athenian system may select those who were capable, the Spartan system ensured that there would always be capable leaders in charge. â€Å"Insanity in individuals is something rare - but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.†(Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil) This is something that must be considered when looking at democracy. While one person may not have the ability to put some insane idea into fruition, a whole group of people believing together could behave very destructive consequences. Plato once stated, â€Å"Democracy... is a charming form of government, full of variety and disorder; and dispensing a sort of equality to equals and unequals alike.†Show MoreRelatedThe Political Systems Of The Hellenic World1130 Words   |  5 Pages At the time of Pericles , there were about a 1000 poleis around the Aegon, in Ionia, Italia, and in the area of the Black Sea. The political systems would vary, majority of the states would have a combination of systems at work; frequently oligarchy, with strong influence of the local aristocracy, with the addition of some undertone of democracy in the form of People s Assembly. The Greek ruling classes wanted the people to participate in the political process; they understood that it mightRead MoreAncient Greeks Vs. Ancient Greece1097 Words   |  5 Pageshistorical backgrounds. For example, the Spartan s society functioned under an oligarchy. This was the case because both their economic agendas and their historical foundations. From the economic perspective, Spartan s economy was primarily supported by the fees† paid by peoples they had conquered and were under Spartan control. From the historical perspective, Spartans were descendants of the Dorians, which were another gro up of conquerors and the Spartans continued their historical path. Each typeRead MoreThucydides Personal Remarks, Political Speeches1814 Words   |  8 PagesSecondly, by evaluating the speeches recounted throughout the work, it will demonstrate Thucydides’ opinion on the intrinsic faults with the Athenian democracy that stem from human nature. Finally, by examining Thucydides statements on tyranny, oligarchy, Sparta, and Pericles, it will show how Thucydides believed that the best form of government was a mixed government of democracy and monarchy that prevented deterioration into an anarchy or tyranny respectively. Before even beginning his historyRead MoreMonarchy and Tyranny in Ancient Greece Essay631 Words   |  3 Pagesknown as a king, ruled for life and passed the rule on to his heir when he died. The most famous monarchy was that of King Alexandra of Macedonia who ruled all of Greece from 336 BC. Sparta had a mixed government consisting of elements of monarchy, oligarchy and democracy. The monarchy, although not a true monarchy, consisted of two kings from separate royal tribes. These kings were subject to the will of the Gerousia and the Ephors and wielded limited power. Aristocracy comes from the Greek words â€Å"aristos†Read MoreEssay on Political Differences Between Sparta and Athens633 Words   |  3 Pagesother hand, was primarily ruled under an Oligarchy government. Though Sparta did have some democratic elements that they implemented into their government they were still recognized as being Oligarchy. Sparta was ruled by a king or at some point two kings. These two kings were from two separate families of royalty and neither of them had absolute power. The king or kings had to be consulted by the Ephors. The Ephors had a lot of power and authority in the Spartan government. They were a group of fiveRead MoreThe Peloponnesian War And The Athenian War1354 Words   |  6 Pageswas fueled by an intense rivalry between the two city states, Sparta and Athens, and was comprised of two smaller wars and one isolated expedition of expansion to Sicily. Spartans historically had always been the political, social and economic RIVALS /adversary of Athens, opposing their democratic and economic goals. The Spartans were politically apprehensive that Athenian culture prospered, for they had complete control over the Mediterranean Sea through the Delian League and were jealous of AthenianRead MoreEssay about Athens: The Superior Polis Compared to Sparta652 Words   |  3 Pagespeople, such as democracy, the Athenians led the Delian League, and Sparta created the Peloponnesian League after the Athenians created their alliance, and the Athenians changed the ways of their government many times to suit the people, and the Spartans did not. The Athenians created the idea of Democracy which is a widely used form of government today. Solon was credited as the man who created the foundation for Athenian Democracy. He changed the whole game. He threw out the debt of the poorRead MoreAthens vs. Sparta Essay1193 Words   |  5 PagesAthens vs. Sparta During the times of Ancient Greece, two major forms of government existed, democracy and oligarchy. The city-states of Athens and Sparta are the best representatives of democracy and oligarchy, respectively. The focus of the times was directed towards military capabilities, while the Athenians were more interested in comfort and culture. It was the oligarchy in Sparta that put a war-like attitude as its first priority and best met the needs of Ancient Greece. These factorsRead MoreAncient Greek And Greek History997 Words   |  4 Pagesculture. Even though they had same cultural background such as same language or same religions, their political systems were very different. There were three types of political systems adapted by ancient Greek. Athens had democracy while Sparta had Oligarchy. Corinth had Tyranny. The comparison between Sparta and Athens in terms of political system as well as cultural background will be discussed in this research paper. In ancient Greek, polis has two different meaning. First, polis means literallyRead MoreAthens V Sparta848 Words   |  4 PagesHowever, their customs and concepts differ tremendously. Generally, Sparta had a very strict military-based state, while Athens focused on the fine arts. Politically, the two city states differed in that Athens had a democracy and Sparta had an oligarchy. Although the city-states had some similarities, they had vast differences. Athens and Sparta were similar when it came to their social structures. Women’s rights and responsibilities were one of the few areas in which they were alike. In Athens

Monday, May 11, 2020

Planning Health Assessment - 1180 Words

U.S. Census Data for St. Joseph’s County in Michigan The population estimation for 2013 was 9,895,622. The racial breakdown is as follows; whites are 80.1%, Black and African America alone are at 14.3%, American Indian and Alaskan Native alone are at 0.7%, Asians 2.6%, Native Hawaiian and Island Pacific’s are 0%, two or more races are 2.2%, Latinos and Hispanics are 4.6% and white alone and not Latino or Hispanic are at 76.2%. The senior citizen rates are at 14.6%. The census does not show how many individuals are disabled. The census states that 5.8% of the population is children under 5 years old and 22.9% are under 18. Bullying as a Health Concern Not many people would think that bullying can be considered a serious health concern,†¦show more content†¦These skills and behaviors can be introduced to students in lessons and classroom discussions. Some of the intensive interventions consist of support to both victims and bullies through group therapy and individual counseling. Obtaining parent support for these children is a important component of intervention initiatives. The goals of these programs are to empower adults and children to take the appropriate steps to stop bulling when and where it occurs and to teach children positive behaviors and interpersonal skills. â€Å"Effective prevention efforts mobilize a school’s most vital resource- the students- to be a school’s most powerful force in fostering a caring culture in which all students can grow and learn†( Feinberg,2003). Type 2 Diabetes in Children In type 2 diabetes a person’s body produces insulin, but the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to maintain bodily functions or the body cannot use the insulin the way it is supposed to. When the body is unable to use insulin properly it is known as insulin resistance. â€Å"When there isn’t enough insulin or the insulin is not used as it should be, glucose (sugar) can’t get into the body’s cells† (WebMD, n.d.). When this happens glucose builds up in the blood and is not absorbed by the cells, which causes the body to not function properly. Some of the subsequent damage that can develop as a result of thisShow MoreRelatedHealth Education And Planning Assessments1347 Words   |  6 PagesWithin certain themes within Health Education, planning assessments can be used to show understanding e.g. weekly food plans within the Physical Health content. Overall Health Education would be an excellent addition to work along side PSHE and Citizenship, the making of a statutory health education would highly benefit its pupils in their personal development. The second subject to be added into the curriculum would be Multi-Media studies. This subject will reflect today’s society and teach skillsRead MoreAdvanced Health Service Planning Assessment1706 Words   |  7 PagesAdvanced Health Service Planning assessment 1 Option C, Question 1 Introduction Health service planning is a continuous process which involves logical and stepwise approaches of defining health issues and directing efficient health service delivery by establishing needs assessment, goals and priorities (Thomas 2004). Health service planning focuses on alignment of health service delivery with changing patterns of need (Queensland Health 2010) and also guides about improvement of health system andRead MoreBWTA Event Planning: Harvard Environmental Health Issues Assessment3013 Words   |  12 PagesHarvard Environmental Health Issues Assessment Identification of the Potential Environmental Health Issues Associated with the Event The planned BWTA event is relatively small, as far as events are concerned. However, the site chosen for the event has several concerns, even though the event is small by most standards. The event will take place from Friday to Sunday in August. The main event is on Saturday, and will include tractor related competitions. 75 members are expected to camp for theRead MoreEffects Of Cigarette Smoking Among Adult Smokers1264 Words   |  6 PagesDepartment of Health Services developed a survey for the assessment of cigarette smoking among adult smokers. The assessment showed that there has been a significant decrease/decline in cigarette smoking amongst adults in the year of 2003. The survey proved that fewer adults are smoking in Los Angeles County than if the rate of smoking had remained the same as in previous years. This paper evaluates the findings in the assessment conducted by Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. TheRead MorePersonal Statement On Health Assessment E ssay1064 Words   |  5 Pagesblock –1 (Health assessment). I wil be identifying 10 concepts from them and thoroughly scrutinize how they would apply to my personal life and other contextual settings such as social context, coupled with current related researches on these concept. However, their applications to my current work place (Havana specialist Hospital, Surulere, and Lagos, Nigeria) and their usefulness to the current world will also be discussed. The concepts are as follows: Communication in Health Assessment (Module1)Read MoreEssay on Understanding the Principles of Assessment1706 Words   |  7 PagesPrinciples and Practices of Assessment 1.1 Function of assessment in learning and development Assessment enables the assessor to measure and record learner achievement. It also enables one to identify individual learner needs through formative assessments as you are working with the learner throughout, identifying what the next step should be. Formative assessments are a continuous process used to provide feedback to the learner. It could also be through summative assessments whereby the assessorRead MoreNursing Process1531 Words   |  7 Pagesin which patients receive nursing care. The nursing process consists of four distinct phases, each having a discreet role in the process, theses phases of the process are: assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation. (Oxford Dictionary of Nursing 2003) It is important that the four stages of the process from assessment to evaluation are carried out sequentially because each phase follows logically from one to the other. As a result the maximum well-being of the patient is always the key issueRead MoreEssay on The Five Phases of the Nursing Process1190 Words   |  5 PagesEffective nursing care plays a very important role in health care as it safeguards the patients and helps them recover as soon as possible. There are many processes that contribute to effective nursing care, nursing process is one of them. Nursing process consists of 5 main phases; Assessment phase, Diagnosing phase, Planning phase, Implementing phase and Evaluation phase. All the phases work hand in hand together and one links to another with every phase having its important role. This process helpsRead MoreMobilizing For Action Through Planning And Partnerships1582 Words   |  7 PagesAction through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP), Atlantic County Hajra Takala Professor, Georgeen Polyak, PhD Benedictine University Executive Summary of the Assessment Plan (Atlantic County) Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) is a community strategic plan to improve community health. Atlantic County Department of Public Health used MAPP for creation of a Community Health Improvement PlanRead MoreThe Knowledge And Understanding Of Health Assessments1075 Words   |  5 PagesThe knowledge and understanding of health assessments are essential to a nurse’s role in promoting health, preventing illness, and caring for others. Health assessments are conducted every day in nursing and other health profession. This essay aims to discuss the importance of understanding the purpose of conducting a health assessment, considering how a health assessment might be conducted differently on the setting and age of the patient or client and further develop the written communication skills

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Racism and the Police Force - 1346 Words

Racism and the Police Force There were two cops. One said You niggers have to learn to respect police officers. The other one said, If you yell or make any noise, I will kill you. Then one held me and the other shoved the plunger up my behind. He pulled it out, shoved it in my mouth, broke my teeth and said, Thats your *censored*, nigger.(Abner Louima) The police officers that allegedly performed this act of racial violence on August 9, 1997 had no reason to brutally beat and sodomize Abner Louima. They beat him for the fact that he was an African-American. I will show how I researched a poem by Maya Angelou and how racism occurred in The Bluest Eye. First, we need to understand what racism is. Racism is a belief†¦show more content†¦Consider lines 1 through 4: You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still, like dust, Ill rise. I agree with lines 1 through 4 because insults have no power. A person can become better and not stoop to your level because still Ill rise (L. 12) One can hate but it will not be heard or acknowledged. A description can be seen in lines 21 through 24: You may shoot me with your words, You may cut me with your eyes, You may kill me with your hatefulness, But still, like air, Ill rise. Maya Angelou described situations that occurred because of ones color. Angelou discussed the past pain of black slaves. I am the dream and the hope of the slave. (L. 40) I think Angelou stated this line to explain that the past occurred but the new generation is the hope to bury the past. Hoping to bring achievement and success of African-Americans. All society hears is the history of slavery and the pain that began with racism, rape and mistreatment of African-Americans. Lines 29 through 43 describe that with African-American history there is hope for success: Out of the huts of historys shame I rise Up from the past thats rooted in pain I rise Im a black ocean, leaping and wide, Welling and swelling I bear in the tide. Leaving behind nights of terror and fear I rise Into a daybreakShow MoreRelatedAmerican Racism : Sports, Police Force, And Media1855 Words   |  8 PagesAmerican Racism in Sports, Police Force, and Media Racism in America has changed over the years since the Civil Rights Movement has taken place. It has improved overall, but not as much as we think. We do have segregation laws and even a black president, but the minds of a few American’s still believe they are superior to other ethnicities. Discrimination has taken on new forms and roles that did not exist when the Civil Rights Movement took place, or even ten years ago. 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Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1 Free Essays

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY WRITING ASSIGMENT ONE a RESEARCH paper sUBMITTED TO Dr. Charlie Davidson iN PARTIAL FULFILMENT oF THE REQUIREMENTS chpl 500 lIBERTY Baptist THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BY wILLIAM nESTOR LAGRANGE GA March 24, 2013 When we think of a chaplain we think in of those who sever in the military providing spiritual comfort to soldier’s hospital. This role of spiritual leader can be traced back to the Roman imperial period where the Roman emperor was not just in charge ruling the empire but also was in charge of the state religion. We will write a custom essay sample on Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the emperor was head of the state religion he was known as the â€Å"pontifex maximus† and it was his job to maintain the â€Å"pax deorum (peace of the gods)† to ensure welfare of the state. Those who served in Roman army religion were important, in every camp there was a shrine called aedes signorum which was locate at the headquarters. Within military there were personal that held different religious responsibilities such as victimarius and turarius who were the incense keepers. It was not until the fourth century when Christian clergy began to emerge in the Roman army. The source that is often looked at about the use of Christian clerics comes from Eusebius of Caesarea. In his report Life of the Emperor Constantine when he engaged in war he would make his tent in shape of a church to have sacred edifice to worship God in which the priests and deacons would provide the service according to the law of the church. Other group soldiers that practice religion was the Barbarians who professed Arian from of Christianity and these soldiers were attached the Roman army and were the first examples of Christian’s clerics being attached to an army unit. The Arian clerics would follow the barbarian armies for practical because when the armies would travel they could not find any Arian churches to meet the spiritual needs of the soldiers at the time. As stated earlier Christian clergy started to be used by the Roman army by Emperor Constantine who had vision of a cross which lead him to paint the symbol on his legionaries shield. This would also lead to other rituals to help Romans soldiers moral they would eventually use Christian relics and litanies and on the sails of the ships they would paint pictures of the Virgin. As move from the Roman imperial period to the Middle Ages religious leaders took continue to maintain the moral of the men who were fighting and facing imminent death. Chaplains gather their flock and provided liturgical services like penitential rites of purification and supplication because they believe war was the result of sin and the outcome was divine judgment. During the Crusades the fighters would fast three days and only take the Eucharist. They would bless the standard of the forces and would lead the soldiers with a processional cross or a prized relic. Chaplains would provide special blessings to provide protection on things like The Crusader’s Holy Lance because it was used a tool to communicate during chaos of combat. Just by looking at two different time periods religion was very important to people and the spiritual leaders had their hands full to maintain moral of people especially those who served in military units. They have to deal with stress of war and the toll it would take on the soldiers, this is the same thing that modern chaplains or religious leaders deal with today and it is not an easy job. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Doris L. Bergen, ed. , The Sword of the Lord: Military Chaplains from the First to the Twenty-First Century (Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 2004), 29. How to cite Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1, Essay examples Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1 Free Essays LIBERTY UNIVERSITY WRITING ASSIGMENT ONE a RESEARCH paper sUBMITTED TO Dr. Charlie Davidson iN PARTIAL FULFILMENT oF THE REQUIREMENTS chpl 500 lIBERTY Baptist THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BY wILLIAM nESTOR LAGRANGE GA March 24, 2013 When we think of a chaplain we think in of those who sever in the military providing spiritual comfort to soldier’s hospital. This role of spiritual leader can be traced back to the Roman imperial period where the Roman emperor was not just in charge ruling the empire but also was in charge of the state religion. We will write a custom essay sample on Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the emperor was head of the state religion he was known as the â€Å"pontifex maximus† and it was his job to maintain the â€Å"pax deorum (peace of the gods)† to ensure welfare of the state. Those who served in Roman army religion were important, in every camp there was a shrine called aedes signorum which was locate at the headquarters. Within military there were personal that held different religious responsibilities such as victimarius and turarius who were the incense keepers. It was not until the fourth century when Christian clergy began to emerge in the Roman army. The source that is often looked at about the use of Christian clerics comes from Eusebius of Caesarea. In his report Life of the Emperor Constantine when he engaged in war he would make his tent in shape of a church to have sacred edifice to worship God in which the priests and deacons would provide the service according to the law of the church. Other group soldiers that practice religion was the Barbarians who professed Arian from of Christianity and these soldiers were attached the Roman army and were the first examples of Christian’s clerics being attached to an army unit. The Arian clerics would follow the barbarian armies for practical because when the armies would travel they could not find any Arian churches to meet the spiritual needs of the soldiers at the time. As stated earlier Christian clergy started to be used by the Roman army by Emperor Constantine who had vision of a cross which lead him to paint the symbol on his legionaries shield. This would also lead to other rituals to help Romans soldiers moral they would eventually use Christian relics and litanies and on the sails of the ships they would paint pictures of the Virgin. As move from the Roman imperial period to the Middle Ages religious leaders took continue to maintain the moral of the men who were fighting and facing imminent death. Chaplains gather their flock and provided liturgical services like penitential rites of purification and supplication because they believe war was the result of sin and the outcome was divine judgment. During the Crusades the fighters would fast three days and only take the Eucharist. They would bless the standard of the forces and would lead the soldiers with a processional cross or a prized relic. Chaplains would provide special blessings to provide protection on things like The Crusader’s Holy Lance because it was used a tool to communicate during chaos of combat. Just by looking at two different time periods religion was very important to people and the spiritual leaders had their hands full to maintain moral of people especially those who served in military units. They have to deal with stress of war and the toll it would take on the soldiers, this is the same thing that modern chaplains or religious leaders deal with today and it is not an easy job. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Doris L. Bergen, ed. , The Sword of the Lord: Military Chaplains from the First to the Twenty-First Century (Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 2004), 29. How to cite Chpl 500 Writing Assigment 1, Papers

Pitch perception Essay Example For Students

Pitch perception Essay pageReferencesBaharloo, S., Johnston, P. A., Service, S. K., Gitshcier, J., Freimer, N. B. (1998). Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components. American Journal of Human Genetics, 62, 224-231. Retrieved 11/16/2004. Deutsch, D. (1985). Dichotic listening to melodic patterns and its relationship to hemispheric specialization of function. Music Perception, 3, (2), 127-154. Gregersen, P.K. (1998). Instant recognition: The gentics of pitch perception. American Journal of Human Genetics, 62, 221-223. Retrieved 11/16/2004. Heaton, P., Hermelin, B., Pring, L. (1998). Autism and pitch processing: a precursor for savant musical ability? Music Perception, 15, (3), 291-305. Lenhoff, H., M., Perales, O., Hickok, G. (2001). Absolute pitch in Williams syndrome. Music perception, 18, (4), 491-503. Levitin, D., J., Bellugi, U. (1998). Musical abilities in individuals with Williams Syndrome, Music Perception, 15, (4), 357-389. Pechstedt, P., H., Kershner, J., Kinsbourne, M. (1989). Musical Training improves processing of tonality in the left hemisphere. Music Perception, 6, (3), 275-298. Simpson, J., Huron, D. (1994). Absolute pitch as a learned phenomenon: Evidence consistent with the Hick-Hyman law. Music Perception, 12, (2), 267-270. Sloboda, J. A. (1985). An exceptional music memory. Music Perception, 3, (2), 155-170. Nature or Nurture: The origins of pitch PerceptionFor most of us, quick and accurate perception of the visual world is essential for getting around in life; we take for granted our instant recognition of color, shape, distance, and the physical relationships between objects. Many aspects of the auditory world are also apprehended in an effortless manner: a nighttime whistle is easily identified as a distant train, without any deliberation. However, identifying the pitch of an isolated whistle is beyond the abilities of most people. This is also the case for most musicians, despite the fact that they spend every day working in the context of a standardized system of pitch relationships. Those rare individuals who can instantly recognize the pitch of a random piano tone or passing car horn, without the use of a reference pitch, possess a cognitive ability that is termed absolute pitch.The range of useful musical pitches is 20-5,000 Hz, which is, roughly the range of a piano keyboardPit ch is a one-dimensional attribute defined by the number of vibrations, per second, emanating from a sound source, such as a plucked stringThe peripheral auditory organs are designed specifically for frequency analysis. The cochlear basilar membrane vibrates, at each point along its length, with an optimal resonant frequency. The fact that all humans are quick to appreciate the differences in timbre between instruments illustrates the extreme sensitivity of this organ to complex frequency spectra. Therefore, AP perception is not dependent on a special kind of ear; it reflects a particular ability to analyze frequency information, presumably involving high-level cortical processingDuring the last century, scientific opinion about the etiology of AP has been spread widely across the nature-nurture continuum (Ward and Burns 1982). Many studies have suffered from low statistical power, a lack of controls, and a minimal appreciation for the complexities of genetic causation. The report by Baharloo et al. (1998 in this issue), with Nelson Freimer and his colleagues at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), marks the dawn of a refreshing new era in this regard. By surveying and testing a large population of musicians, the authors have begun to generate basic information on the prevalence and familial aggregation of AP and on environmental factors that influence the development of AP. Particularly important is the careful attention paid by Baharloo et al. to defining the phenotype. Although AP is qualitatively distinct from the relative-pitch ability possessed by all trained musicians, it nevertheless exhibits some phenotypic heterogeneity, and this is likely to be an important consideration for successful mapping studies. .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .postImageUrl , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:hover , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:visited , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:active { border:0!important; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:active , .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92 .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u343cc9937c700052723bd355c8019b92:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Persuasive Essay - the Arts in the EducationA second major finding of the UCSF group is that musicians with AP tend to start their musical education quite early in childhood, nearly all at

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Current Leadership Strategy Of Amazon Company

Question: Discuss about The Current Leadership Strategy Of Amazon Company. Answer: Introduction The current leadership environment is very competitive and coupled with many challenges that come with the organization management of business. Every organization hence has in place strategic goals and objectives that should be attained or achieved within a set time frame. The objectives may be smart, measurable, achievable, specific, and time-bound with a well-managed and qualified staff to help in achieving the set objectives for long-term success and productivity of the organization. However, the success of performance will greatly rely on the leadership strategy adopted or practiced by the organization. A good leadership strategy will help the organization to align their duties with the strategic goals of the organization depending on the professional development objectives. Effective leadership strategy will also motivate wise decision-making to help in linking the leadership styles with the strategic objectives of the organization (Connelly 2015, p. 482). According to Huffaker (2010), leadership strategy is the act of adopting well-strategized and considered skills in the process of communicating or driving the vision of an organization. A leadership strategy primarily persuades and motivates the workforce for easy organizational management in a similarly shared vision of the organization. It is thus a vital tool that can create an essential structure for an organization so as to implement any effective and necessary changes within the organization so as to drive it towards the strategic objectives of the organization. Such changes may involve setting the leadership requirements for the organization together with their responsibilities in the journey of driving the organization towards the set goals and objectives. This paper examines the leadership strategy adopted by Amazon Company to enable the organization to achieve its set goals and objectives. The paper focuses on the business strategies adopted by the organization, implication s of the strategy on the leadership requirements, and conclude by recommending a strategy that can improve the performance of the organization so as to enable it to attain its strategic goals. Elements of a well-developed leadership strategy According to Connelly et al. (2015), many organization struggles with knowing the best leadership strategy to adopt to effectively proceed to success and efficiency in achieving the set goals and objectives. As a result, a question that many managers ask themselves is that what are the elements of a good or well-developed leadership strategy that an organization should adopt? Gordon (2015) in his article also notes that the current business environment is very uncertain, and many employees are questioning how their jobs and the industry will be impacted owing to the ever increasing global economy. As a result, many organizations tend to be unsure of the best actions to take hence creating avoid negativity within the workplace. The void negativity tends to create fear and lack of positive communication that finally dominate the behavior, thoughts, and actions of the employees. Gordon further points out that such a situation leads to lack of trust, poor focus, uninspired teamwork, decr eased productivity, and subpar performance. Instead, the workforce switches to the survival mood of survival (Walker, Aritz 2015, p. 458). The current business environment thus needs a well-developed leadership strategy with strategized basics that can motivate the leadership to have a plan of action that can encourage, empower, and inspire the workforce. Such a leadership strategy motivates a transfer of belief in the leadership of the organization that majorly determines the difference between failure and success. Positive leadership strategy tends to share the vision, optimism, belief, purpose, and organizational plan that finally empower the employees to act and execute what they believe. A well-developed leadership strategy thus leads to powerful plans and actions that will produce significant strategic results for an organization (Gordon, 2016). However, it is more than just having inspirational speeches because it is a process that requires several steps to drive the organization to the right direction. It hence involves the following elements; Have a priority in the culture of the organization Poor leadership style results to the negativity that tends to knock the employees off balance. A well-developed leadership strategy should refocus, regroup, and unit the employees to create a team environment and a winning organizational culture. With good working relationship and a winning team, Rashad (2015) point out that an organization creates an internal strength within the organization that can win and withstand the naysayers, negativity, and adversity from the external challenges. A well-developed leadership strategy should thus make the culture of the organization as the priority of every employee so as to it through a powerful and long-term success of the organization. A good leadership strategy hence needs to sell the culture of the organization to the employees so that they can by the vision and work towards it. It hence requires a clear understanding of the target customers, propositional values of the organization, competitive abilities, and weaknesses of the organizati on. Well-developed leadership strategies will hence promote core competencies and develop capabilities as well as the relevant skills that will enhance value promotion towards the strategic goals of the organization. Share a positive vision The vision of the organization should always be simple, bold, and clear for everyone to understand and work towards the strategic objectives set to meet the objectives. It must also be relevant to the challenges the organization must be facing and the way forward (Huffaker 2016, p. 600). A good and well-developed leadership strategy must share the vision so as to encourage the management and the subordinate to work towards the vision. It should work towards affecting the vision of the organization. Instead of focusing much on the initiatives and tasks of the organization, a well-developed leadership strategy promotes a deep industrial or professional knowledge towards the strategic goals and objectives of the organization. In their study, Connelly et al. (2015) point out that a strategic thinking towards the goals promotes a strong network with a consistent identification of the market trends to as to tune the organization performance towards the dynamics of the market that may affec t the achievement of the strategic goals of the organization. Work towards turning negative energy into positive solutions A well-developed leadership strategy needs to focus towards utilizing the current challenges, complaints, and problems as a way of generating new ideas, paths of success and innovations. According to Walker and Aritz (2015), History has it that many ideas and innovations of product initiatives for many successful companies were developed during downturns and recessions. As a result, in the case of challenges and downfalls, both the employees and the management should ask themselves what they will learn from the challenges, what opportunities does the challenges offer that can be utilized as a chance of improvement? What actions need to be taken towards the available opportunities? In the uncertain times of the competitive business nature, predicting the future can be difficult. It hence requires positive leadership, positive action, and positive communication that can create a stronger, better, and wiser future. A well-developed leadership strategy also promotes unity and good relationship in the working place. It ensures employees develop their skills and strategies through training and development that not only benefits the employees but the organization as well. It should promote an outstanding self-awareness among the employees and the management. According to Johnston and Marshall (2016), every employee has a fault and instinctive behavior that can result in consequences. Understanding the weaknesses and strengths of the workforce through healthy discussions and debates that can be helpful to promote the improvement of the weaknesses and strengthen the workforce. The strategy should also be persuasive and inspirational so as to unite the workforce towards achieving the strategic goals of the organization according to Ripoll (2015, p. 445). The business strategy of Amazon Company Amazon is an American multinational company that offers various types of online products. The company is based in the United States of America specifically at Seattle in Washington. Even though the company started as a bookshop, the development of the technological innovations has enabled Amazon to diversify its products over time continually. The primary strategic goal of this American multinational organization is to offer a one-stop online shopping experience for its customers, where they can access all the company products (Simchi-Levi et al., 2014). The company operates as a pure internet retailer that do not have any physical retail store. With the adoption of technological innovations and models into its operations, all the products of the company are supplied and delivered to its esteemed customers through its networks of distribution centers. This strategy or form of business operation enables the organization to offer diverse and high-quality products at relatively low pric es. Also, it facilitates customer satisfaction since it promotes customer convenience (Pearce, Robinson Subramanian 2011, p. 67). As a result, the online retail chain system has helped in reducing the cost of operation while it offers its products at affordable prices. The strategy of the online offerings has enabled Amazon to keep a low price in its products thus passing the benefits to the consumers. Their robust customers centric approaches of analyzing the buying behavior of the customers based on their preferences have enabled them achieve a competitive edge over their stiff competitors. Simchi-Levi et al. (2014) denote that Amazon has become one of the longest players till date in the online sector with a solid customer hold and market share in the US and European countries, an advantage that is helping the company to expand is new markets despite the competitive dynamics of the online business. In his study, Bhasin (2016) denotes that e-commerce companies such as Amazon using demographic and psychographic segmentation for the market segmentation research and analysis. The company has thus developed a leadership strategy that ensures the business works towards the actual purchase behavior of customers. It thus focuses on what people have actu ally expressed interest in and not what they might. In the marketing mix, Amazon acquired different IT and e-commerce start-ups so as to differentiate itself from its competitors. These included pets.com, Junglee.com audible.com, Woot, IMBD.com, and Zappos.com that enabled the firm to provide high value to their customers by the use of the existing technology from the partners at subsidized cost. As a result, it has achieved economies of scale by offering extensive products such as games and toys, electronics, DIY, and apparels, among others. The strategy narrows down into targeting the individual customers hence converting visitors into high-value and long-term customers. According to Imran (2015), customer segmentation is often involved in creating personas who buys certain products in certain ways. In the same way, Amazon targets the both the middle and upper-class customers with hands-on experience in the primary technological basics but have no time of preferring online convenience over physical outlet shopping. The strategy has thus promoted the firm positioning it in the Go Global Act local (Glocal) e-commerce giant offering stiff competition with other online platforms such as Google. As a result, any customer can purchase any product and still get the product delivered at any remote location of their choices. On effective leadership requirements, the business strategy adopted by the company has shown competency, vision, unity and value not only to the organization but to the customers as well. The leadership strategies adopted by the management of the organization has seen it through achievements with a good customer base in the global market. However, to maintain its position in performance, Amazon need to develop a leadership strategy that will help the organization keep an open culture and maintain its investors, developers, and customers united in an open communication of innovation and development of not only the products but the workforce as well. As a result, a development-centered leadership strategy is as well essential to enable it develop a workforce that is diverse and qualified to face the market challenges. Development-centered leadership strategy approach in support of the company to achieve its strategic goals Critical competencies of the strategy Driving change Building commitment to the employees and the management Maximizing the talent quality of the employees through training and development Giving focus to customer satisfaction and commitment Sourcing qualified leaders and employees with the relevant skills Growing the business towards the strategic goals Sourcing qualified leaders and employees: The strategy will ensure a bought mix to balance the ratio between the external hires and the internal hires in the management at a ratio of 3:7. This will mainly be done so as to challenge the culture of the organization and encourage new ideas while providing development opportunities for the internal development of the organization. The leadership strategy will as well adopt a succession planning process as an exclusive method of placing the qualified leaders into their respective positions. The organization will thus be able to identify qualified candidates and match them with the relevant positions and opportunities. The process will be conducted through a succession planning process using the competencies of the candidates as the primary screen of monitoring qualifications. According to Gandossy and Effron (2016) succession or retention of leaders in the respective new roles of the organization both internally and externally requires a process which provides coaching and guidance. On-boarding leaders will be adopted as a process of examining working relationship building as well as the personal performance of the leaders that will be relevant towards the strategic objectives of the organization. Leaders Alignment: Using the strategy, Amazon will align its leaders on three major concepts which include performance management, executive coaching, and leader engagement. Through performance management, the organization will be able to set aggressive goals for all the leaders in the various departments of the organization. The process will thus ensure that stretch goals and objectives are key components necessary for balancing business performance measurements to promote positive individual behaviors. Engagement of leaders will as well be monitored actively through annual surveys of the human resources by an executive team that will be jointly held accountable for the identification and improvement of deficiencies within the organization. The strategy will as well ensure that an executive coaching process is adopted to develop the performance of the workforce and will be adopted as a core aspect of the strategy. Developing leaders: The process will be carried out through assignment-based development, executive development, and high-potential development. On the assignment-based, job assignments and responsibilities will be the primary strategy for developing leaders so as to help in matching the employees with their responsibilities as per the flow of the succession planning process. High-potential development will ensure that the highest-potential employees of Amazon receive a disproportionate share of the organizational developmental resources such as the shares. The strategy will thus plan on the development of the group activities for the potential leaders among the staff then increase their exposure to the board and the senior team while reviewing their performance periodically like on a semi-annual basis. On the other hand, the executive development process will provide group-based sessions for the leaders to develop skills of customer service and clear vision communication and acumen. Rewarding leaders: Amazon Company should adopt different ways of rewarding their leaders such as having base pay, long-term incentives, as well as the annual incentives. The strategy will ensure a set of a 50th percentile as the major target for the base pay with high-potential employees identified through different successions process that will be paid at the 60th percentile. The strategy will as well adopt an annual incentive with a 75th percentile target that strongly differs between median and high performers in distribution of rewards. However, the long-term incentive will adopt a combination of regular stock option and performance-vesting stock to provide the necessary incentives for consistent leader behavior. The process will thus target the 75th percentile for the awards while differentiating between median and high performers. Adopting this strategy will help the organization in many ways while pushing the organization towards its strategic goals. It will also ensure that different essential programs within the workplace are monitored such as training and development of employees, resource sustainability, good relationship in a working environment etc. It will lead to great investment and produce good returns that will fuel the developmental strategies and speed the launch of new products. According to Rashad (2015) a development leadership strategy should focus not only on the strategic objectives of the organization but on the training and development of workforce as well since they are the major driving force for the success of every organization. The strategy will as well help the firm in figuring out how to address any human resource challenge and maintains a productive workforce full of fun, skills, and diverse knowledge for a productive atmosphere. Conclusion Well-defined leadership strategies play major roles in the successful performance of an organization as every organization is created with a purpose to achieve particular objectives. As a result, effective leadership strategies are essential in ensuring the organization coordinates its activities so as to achieve the set strategic goals and objectives. Good leadership is hence the backbone to the success of any organization as the performance of the workforce is solely dependent on direction and motivation from the leadership. Therefore, there are different types of leadership strategies that can be experienced in a workplace or adopted in an organization each of which has its advantages and disadvantages. The types of leadership styles adopted are dependent on the goals and culture of the organization as well as the task to be completed. List of References Bhasin, H, (2016), Marketing strategy of Amazon. 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